Acacia erioloba

Towering over the arid landscapes of southern Africa, the camel thorn (Vachellia erioloba), also known as the giraffe thorn or mokala tree, stands as a testament to strength and endurance. This iconic tree, with its formidable thorns and sprawling canopy, has played a vital role in the ecology and culture of the region for centuries.

Opens in a new

The camel thorn tree (Vachellia erioloba) standing tall in the African savanna

A Botanical Marvel:

Reaching heights of up to 20 meters, the camel thorn boasts a robust structure. Its deep taproot, extending up to 60 meters, allows it to access precious groundwater in even the driest conditions. The grey-brown bark, deeply furrowed with age, tells stories of harsh winds and scorching sun. The blossoms, a burst of creamy yellow, attract a symphony of insects, while the flat, bipinnate leaves, sensitive to sunlight, close up to conserve moisture during the day. But it’s the thorns, up to 6 cm long and paired at the base of leaves, that truly define this tree. These formidable defenses protect the camel thorn from herbivores, making it a crucial source of food and shelter for smaller creatures seeking refuge.

A Haven in the Arid Lands:

The camel thorn’s resilience extends beyond its physical form. Its extensive root system helps prevent soil erosion, while its nitrogen-fixing capabilities enrich the surrounding soil, fostering the growth of other plants. Its broad canopy provides shade and coolness for weary travelers and grazing animals. In water-scarce regions, the hollow trunks of older trees often collect rainwater, forming vital natural waterholes for wildlife. This tree is an island of life in the harsh savanna, offering sustenance and sanctuary to countless creatures.

A Cultural Icon:

The camel thorn’s deep roots extend into the cultural fabric of southern Africa. Its strength and resilience have earned it a place of respect and admiration in various cultures. In South Africa, it is a protected tree, recognized for its ecological and cultural significance. The San people have traditionally used its wood for tools and weapons, its bark for medicinal purposes, and its gum for adhesive. The ** Afrikaans name “Kameeldoring”** directly translates to “camel thorn,” reflecting its importance as a source of food and shade for these iconic desert animals.

Threats and Conservation:

Despite its resilience, the camel thorn faces challenges. Habitat loss due to agricultural expansion and unsustainable resource use threatens its populations. Climate change and increasing drought put additional strain on this hardy tree. Conservation efforts are underway to protect existing camel thorn populations and promote sustainable practices that ensure their continued survival.


The camel thorn is more than just a tree; it is a symbol of hope and resilience in the face of adversity. Its story reminds us of the interconnectedness of life and the importance of preserving the delicate balance of our ecosystems. By understanding and appreciating this remarkable tree, we can ensure that future generations continue to benefit from its ecological and cultural significance.

Here are some additional interesting facts about the camel thorn:

  • The seeds of the camel thorn are edible and can be roasted and ground into a coffee-like substitute.
  • The wood is extremely dense and hard, making it valuable for furniture and construction. However, its flammability has led to its overuse as firewood, posing a threat to some populations.
  • The camel thorn is often used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including wounds, diarrhea, and fever.
  • The unique shape of the camel thorn’s canopy has inspired artists and photographers for centuries.